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A Human-Specific Motif Facilitates CARD8 Inflammasome Activation After HIV-1 Infection

By July 12, 2023No Comments

Inflammasomes are cytosolic innate immune complexes that assemble upon detection of diverse pathogen-associated cues and play a critical role in host defense and inflammatory pathogenesis. Here, we find that the human inflammasome-forming sensor CARD8 senses HIV-1 infection via site-specific cleavage of the CARD8 N-terminus by the HIV protease (HIV-1PR). HIV-1PR cleavage of CARD8 induces pyroptotic cell death and the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines from infected cells, processes regulated by Toll-like receptor stimulation prior to viral infection.