HEY1-NCOA2 fusion is most described in mesenchymal chondrosarcoma. This is the first case report of a primary renal spindle cell neoplasm of uncertain malignant potential with a HEY1::NCOA2 fusion identified by Fusionplex RNA-sequencing that is histologically distinct from mesenchymal chondrosarcoma. The neoplasm was identified in a 33 year old woman without significant past medical history who underwent partial nephrectomy for…
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Neurons in the developing brain undergo extensive structural refinement as nascent circuits adopt their mature form. This physical transformation of neurons is facilitated by the engulfment and degradation of axonal branches and synapses by surrounding glial cells, including microglia and astrocytes. However, the small size of phagocytic organelles and the complex, highly ramified morphology of glia have made it difficult…
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Sampling of Structure and Sequence Space of Small Protein Folds

Nature only samples a small fraction of the sequence space that can fold into stable proteins. Furthermore, small structural variations in a single fold, sometimes only a few amino acids, can define a protein’s molecular function. Hence, to design proteins with novel functionalities, such as molecular recognition, methods to control and sample shape diversity are necessary. To explore this space,…
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Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder and a mechanistically complex disease. For the last decade, human models of AD using induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have emerged as a powerful way to understand disease pathogenesis in relevant human cell types. In this review, we summarize the state of the field and how this technology can apply to studies…
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Stability of eukaryotic mRNAs is associated with their codon, amino acid, and GC content. Yet, coding sequence motifs that predictably alter mRNA stability in human cells remain poorly defined. Here, we develop a massively parallel assay to measure mRNA effects of thousands of synthetic and endogenous coding sequence motifs in human cells. We identify several families of simple dipeptide repeats…
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The tumour-associated microbiota is an intrinsic component of the tumour microenvironment across human cancer types1,2. Intratumoral host-microbiota studies have so far largely relied on bulk tissue analysis1-3, which obscures the spatial distribution and localized effect of the microbiota within tumours. Here, by applying in situ spatial-profiling technologies4 and single-cell RNA sequencing5 to oral squamous cell carcinoma and colorectal cancer, we reveal spatial,…
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Methods for acquiring spatially resolved omics data from complex tissues use barcoded DNA arrays of low- to sub-micrometer features to achieve single-cell resolution. However, fabricating such arrays (randomly assembled beads, DNA nanoballs, or clusters) requires sequencing barcodes in each array, limiting cost-effectiveness and throughput. Here, we describe a vastly scalable stamping method to fabricate polony gels, arrays of ∼1-micrometer clonal…
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Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) mediate an immunosuppressive effect, but the underlying mechanism remains incompletely defined. Here we show that increasing prostatic stromal Foxf2 suppresses the growth and progression of both syngeneic and autochthonous mouse prostate cancer models in an immunocompetent context. Mechanistically, Foxf2 moderately attenuates the CAF phenotype and transcriptionally downregulates Cxcl5, which diminish the immunosuppressive myeloid cells and enhance T…
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Chromatin profiling at locus resolution uncovers gene regulatory features that define cell types and developmental trajectories, but it remains challenging to map and compare different chromatin-associated proteins in the same sample. Here we describe Multiple Target Identification by Tagmentation (MulTI-Tag), an antibody barcoding approach for profiling multiple chromatin features simultaneously in single cells. We optimized MulTI-Tag to retain high sensitivity…
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A fundamental step in regeneration is rapid growth to replace lost tissue. Cells must generate sufficient lipids, nucleotides, and proteins to fuel rapid cell division. To define metabolic pathways underlying regenerative growth, we undertake a multimodal investigation of metabolic reprogramming in Xenopus tropicalis appendage regeneration. Regenerating tissues have increased glucose uptake; however, inhibition of glycolysis does not decrease regeneration. Instead,…
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