Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy has produced remarkable anti-tumor responses in patients with B-cell malignancies. However, clonal kinetics and transcriptional programs that regulate the fate of CAR-T cells after infusion remain poorly understood. Here we perform TCRB sequencing, integration site analysis, and single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) to profile CD8+ CAR-T cells from infusion products (IPs) and blood of patients undergoing…
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Upon Ag exposure, naive B cells expressing BCR able to bind Ag can undergo robust proliferation and differentiation that can result in the production of Ab-secreting and memory B cells. The factors determining whether an individual naive B cell will proliferate following Ag encounter remains unclear. In this study, we found that polyclonal naive murine B cell populations specific for…
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Single agent checkpoint inhibitor therapy has not been effective for most gastrointestinal solid tumors, but combination therapy with drugs targeting additional immunosuppressive pathways is being attempted. One such pathway, the CXCL12-CXCR4/CXCR7 chemokine axis, has attracted attention due to its effects on tumor cell survival and metastasis as well as immune cell migration. CXCL12 is a small protein that functions in…
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Deciphering how signaling enzymes operate within discrete microenvironments is fundamental to understanding biological processes. A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) restrict the range of action of protein kinases within intracellular compartments. We exploited the AKAP targeting concept to create genetically encoded platforms that restrain kinase inhibitor drugs at distinct subcellular locations. Local Kinase Inhibition (LoKI) allows us to ascribe organelle-specific functions to broad specificity kinases.…
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The authors evaluated the effects of four specific antibiotics in healthy female rhesus macaques. All antibiotics disrupted the microbiome, including reduced abundances of fermentative bacteria and increased abundances of potentially pathogenic bacteria. This study demonstrates the importance of considering the necessity of antibiotic use for each occasion.
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Immunotherapy with the adoptive transfer of T cells redirected with CD19-specific chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) for B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) can salvage >80% of patients having relapsed/refractory disease. The therapeutic index of this emerging modality is attenuated by the occurrence of immunologic toxicity syndromes that occur upon CAR T-cell engraftment. Here, we report on the low incidence of severe…
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The authors report on a two-step immunization scheme that leads to the maturation of VRC01-like antibodies capable of accommodating the N276 glycan and displaying autologous tier 2 neutralizing activities. The study provides information that is critical for the upcoming Phase I clinical trial of one of the Stamatatos lab’s HIV vaccine immunogens. The trial will be conducted by the HIV Vaccine Trials Network at Fred Hutch.
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The long-term effects of CD19-targeted chimeric antigen receptor–modified T-cell immunotherapy (CD19-CARTx) for B-cell malignancies on humoral immunity are unclear. We examined antiviral humoral immunity in 39 adults with B-cell malignancies who achieved durable complete remission without additional therapy for >6 months after CD19-CARTx. Despite CD19+ B-cell aplasia in all patients, the incidence of viral infections occurring >90 days post–CD19-CARTx was low…
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We used duplex sequencing to detect low-frequency mutations in the BCL6 super-enhancer locus in normal human B cells. The landscape of preexisting mutations is remarkably conserved across different ethnicities and reveals clustered mutational hotspots that correlate with reported sites of clonal mutations and translocation breakpoints in human B cell lymphomas. This high-resolution genomic landscape revealed by duplex sequencing offers accurate and thorough…
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Robust inflammatory responses are essential to control microbial infections. At the same time, it is critical to resolve inflammation to minimize tissue damage as a consequence of an overactive immune response. The authors identified a host innate immune gene, zinc-finger antiviral protein (ZAP), that plays a dual role in clearing alphavirus infection and controlling interferon-induced inflammation. Through alternative polyadenylation and differential post-translational modification, this gene can be diversified to perform differential functions.
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