There are two main applications for this work. First, the scientists can use their models to engineer novel gene regulatory elements (specifically 5'UTRs). Second, they can use their model to predict which variants in the human genome result in changes in protein production. It's currently impossible to characterize every variant experimentally and having a model that allows us to identify those variants that have the largest impact is extremely useful for diagnostics applications.
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This research shows that pandemic multi-drug resistant (‘superbug’) strains can emerge virtually instantly, without a multi-step prolonged evolution, by a one-time chromosomal gene exchange between distantly related bacterial strains. Potentially, this could be an exchange between a human pathogenic strain and a multi-drug resistant strain that come from animals or the environment. The next step for this work is finding out whether other superbug strains also emerged instantly by gene exchange, and identifying the main sources of the drug-resistant strains in nature.
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Low oxygen conditions (hypoxia) can impair essential physiological processes and cause cellular damage and death. We have shown that specific hypoxic conditions disrupt protein homeostasis in C. elegans, leading to protein aggregation and proteotoxicity. Here, we show that nutritional cues regulate this effect of hypoxia on proteostasis. Animals fasted prior to hypoxic exposure develop dramatically fewer polyglutamine protein aggregates compared to their…
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Type III interferon (IFN-λ) is important for innate immune protection at mucosal surfaces and has therapeutic benefit against influenza A virus (IAV) infection. However, the mechanisms by which IFN-λ programs adaptive immune protection against IAV are undefined. Here we found that IFN-λ signaling in dendritic cell (DC) populations was critical for the development of protective IAV-specific CD8+ T cell responses. Mice…
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Relapse after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is the leading cause of death in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) entering HCT with poor-risk features1,2,3. When HCT does produce prolonged relapse-free survival, it commonly reflects graft-versus-leukemia effects mediated by donor T cells reactive with antigens on leukemic cells4. As graft T cells have not been selected for leukemia specificity and…
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Understanding the diversity of cell types in the brain has been an enduring challenge and requires detailed characterization of individual neurons in multiple dimensions. To systematically profile morpho-electric properties of mammalian neurons, we established a single-cell characterization pipeline using standardized patch-clamp recordings in brain slices and biocytin-based neuronal reconstructions. We built a publicly accessible online database, the Allen Cell Types…
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Although the signaling events that induce different forms of programmed cell death are well defined, the subsequent immune responses to dying cells in the context of cancer remain relatively unexplored. Necroptosis occurs downstream of the receptor-interacting protein kinases RIPK1 and RIPK3, whose activation leads to lytic cell death accompanied by de novo production of proinflammatory mediators. Here, we show that…
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Ever since the seminal findings of Ramon y Cajal, dendritic and axonal morphology has been recognized as a defining feature of neuronal types and their connectivity. Yet our knowledge about the diversity of neuronal morphology, in particular its distant axonal projections, is still extremely limited. To systematically obtain single neuron full morphology on a brain-wide scale in mice, we established…
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Mutualisms can be promoted by pleiotropic win-win mutations which directly benefit self (self-serving) and partner (partner-serving). Intuitively, partner-serving phenotype could be quantified as an individual’s benefit supply rate to partners. Here, we demonstrate the inadequacy of this thinking, and propose an alternative. Specifically, we evolved well-mixed mutualistic communities where two engineered yeast strains exchanged essential metabolites lysine and hypoxanthine. Among…
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