Alveolar macrophages resident in the lung are prominent phagocytic effector cells of the pulmonary innate immune response, and paradoxically, are attractive harbors for pathogens. Consequently, facultative intracellular bacteria, such as Francisella tularensis, can cause severe systemic disease and sepsis, with high morbidity and mortality associated with pulmonary infection. Current clinical treatment, which involves exhaustive oral or intravenous antibiotic therapy, has…
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Over one million candidate regulatory elements have been identified across the human genome, but nearly all are unvalidated and their target genes uncertain. Approaches based on human genetics are limited in scope to common variants and in resolution by linkage disequilibrium. We present a multiplex, expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL)-inspired framework for mapping enhancer-gene pairs by introducing random combinations of…
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Mitochondria play a prominent role in mechanosensory hair cell damage and death. Although hair cells are thought to be energetically demanding cells, how mitochondria respond to these demands and how this might relate to cell death is largely unexplored. Using genetically encoded indicators, we found mitochondrial calcium flux and oxidation are regulated by mechanotransduction and demonstrate that hair cell activity…
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Nerve agents are a class of organophosphorus compounds (OPs) that blocks communication between nerves and organs. Because of their acute neurotoxicity, it is extremely difficult to rescue the victims after exposure. Numerous efforts have been devoted to search for an effective prophylactic nerve agent bioscavenger to prevent the deleterious effects of these compounds. However, low scavenging efficiency, unfavorable pharmacokinetics, and…
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The Vaginal Microbiome of Transgender Men

Hormonal changes influence the composition of vaginal flora, which is directly related to the health of an individual. Transgender men prescribed testosterone experience a vaginal hormone composition that differs from cisgender women. To the author’s knowledge, there are no clinical studies evaluating the influence that testosterone administration has on the vaginal microbiome. Vaginal swabs were self-collected by a cohort of…
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Neutrophils release neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) in response to invading pathogens. Although NETs play an important role in host defense against microbial pathogens, they have also been shown to play a contributing mechanistic role in pathologic inflammation in the absence of infection. Although a role for NETs in bacterial pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is emerging, a comprehensive…
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De novo cardiomyogenesis is limited to ≈1% per year in the adult mammalian heart.1 Whether newly formed cardiomyocytes are derived from division of pre-existing myocytes or from differentiation of resident cardiac progenitor cells is a topic of debate. Cardiac progenitor cells have been posited as a source of endogenous cardiomyocyte renewal and as cells that can be harvested, expanded in vitro,…
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Specificity of interactions between two DNA strands, or between protein and DNA, is often achieved by varying bases or side chains coming off the DNA or protein backbone—for example, the bases participating in Watson–Crick pairing in the double helix, or the side chains contacting DNA in TALEN–DNA complexes. By contrast, specificity of protein–protein interactions usually involves backbone shape complementarity1, which…
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The HIV-1 trans-activator protein Tat binds the trans-activation response element (TAR) to facilitate recruitment of the super elongation complex (SEC) to enhance transcription of the integrated pro-viral genome. The Tat-TAR interaction is critical for viral replication and the emergence of the virus from the latent state, therefore, inhibiting this interaction has long been pursued to discover new anti-viral or latency reversal…
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Clinical Potential of Mass Spectrometry-Based Proteogenomics

Cancer genomics research aims to advance personalized oncology by finding and targeting specific genetic alterations associated with cancers. In genome-driven oncology, treatments are selected for individual patients on the basis of the findings of tumour genome sequencing. This personalized approach has prolonged the survival of subsets of patients with cancer. However, many patients do not respond to the predicted therapies…
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