Non-invasively probing metabolites within single live cells is highly desired but challenging. Here we utilize Raman spectro-microscopy for spatial mapping of metabolites within single cells, with the specific goal of identifying druggable metabolic susceptibilities from a series of patient-derived melanoma cell lines. Each cell line represents a different characteristic level of cancer cell de-differentiation. First, with Raman spectroscopy, followed by…
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Monitoring the frequency of circulatory CXCR5+ (cCXCR5+) CD4+ T cells in periphery blood provides a potential biomarker to draw inferences about T follicular helper (TFH) activity within germinal center. However, cCXCR5+ T cells are highly heterogeneous in their expression of ICOS, PD1 and CD38 and the relationship between different cCXCR5 subsets as delineated by these markers remains unclear. We applied class II tetramer…
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Photoreceptors initiate vision by converting photons to electrical activity. The onset of the phototransduction cascade is marked by the isomerization of photopigments upon light capture. We revealed that the onset of phototransduction is accompanied by a rapid (<5 ms), nanometer-scale electromechanical deformation in individual human cone photoreceptors. Characterizing this biophysical phenomenon associated with phototransduction in vivo was enabled by high-speed…
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Lysine 27-to-methionine (K27M) mutations in the H3.1 or H3.3 histone genes are characteristic of pediatric diffuse midline gliomas (DMGs). These oncohistone mutations dominantly inhibit histone H3K27 trimethylation and silencing, but it is unknown how oncohistone type affects gliomagenesis. We show that the genomic distributions of H3.1 and H3.3 oncohistones in human patient-derived DMG cells are consistent with the DNA replication-coupled…
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Despite limited genomic diversity, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has shown a wide range of clinical manifestations in different patient populations. The mechanisms behind these host differences are still unclear. Here, we examined host response gene expression across infection status, viral load, age, and sex among shotgun RNA sequencing profiles of nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs from 430 individuals with…
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The authors have found a new pathway of cell resistance to viruses that is broad, working against Ebola and SARS-CoV-2. This pathway involves a newly uncovered new role for CIITA and CD74, which are traditionally associated with antigen presentation. They used a novel transposon screening platform that both activates and inactivates genes in a truly genome-wide way, like a combined CRISPRi/ CRISPRa screen.
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Precise cell targeting is challenging because most mammalian cell types lack a single surface marker that distinguishes them from other cells. A solution would be to target cells based on specific combinations of proteins present on their surfaces. We design colocalization-dependent protein switches (Co-LOCKR) that perform AND, OR, and NOT Boolean logic operations. These switches activate through a conformational change…
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We recently showed that perineuronal nets (PNNs) enmesh glucoregulatory neurons in the arcuate nucleus (Arc) of the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH)1, but whether these PNNs play a role in either the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes (T2D) or its treatment remains unclear. Here we show that PNN abundance within the Arc is markedly reduced in the Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rat…
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Rationale: Myocardial infarction (MI) causes spatial variation in collagen organization and phenotypic diversity in fibroblasts, which regulate the heart’s extracellular matrix (ECM). The relationship between collagen structure and fibroblast phenotype is poorly understood but could provide insights regarding the mechanistic basis for myofibroblast heterogeneity in the injured heart. Objective: To investigate the role of collagen organization in cardiac fibroblast fate determination. Methods…
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The recently emerged SARS-CoV-2 virus is currently causing a global pandemic and cases continue to rise. The majority of infected individuals experience mildly symptomatic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but it is unknown whether this can induce persistent immune memory that might contribute to herd immunity. Thus, we performed a longitudinal assessment of individuals recovered from mildly symptomatic COVID-19 to determine…
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